A joint Mongolian-Russian bank, called the "Trade and Industry Bank of Mongolia" (Bank of Mongolia) was opened on June 2, 1924 in Altanbulag with a single branch.
At that time, the bank's capital was 260000 yanchaan (the currency of the period). It operated with 22 employees, 18 of which were Russian specialists and 4 of them were Mongolian. At the start, the joint bank was called by two names, "Trade and Industry Bank of Mongolia", and the "Bank of Mongolia", but it was named the Bank of Mongolia in official papers and documents.
Due to the absence of a national currency, the bank faced difficulties in fulfilling financial and monetary-credit policy in the first 18 months, and foreign currencies were used in circulation.
Consequently, according to the decision of Ikh Khural, the Government of Mongolia issued a resolution to conduct monetary reform on February 22, 1925. In accordance with this resolution, the Bank of Mongolia issued a new national currency, the Tögrög, consisting of 25% for precious metal and foreign stable currency, and 75% for marketable goods.
In 1954, the makeup of the Bank staff had increased to 98% (compare to 18% in 1924). On the basis of this extension, the former Soviet Union transferred its own share of capital and stocks in the Bank of Mongolia to the state of Mongolia. Following this, the Bank of Mongolia was renamed as the State Bank of Mongolia.
In 1991, a completely new 2 level banking system was established in Mongolia. Since its establishment, the Bank of Mongolia has been influencing and contributing efforts on the economy of the country, in maintaining the monetary policy aimed at the stabilisation of the value of the currency, and reduction of the inflation rate in the unstable transitional period.